Wednesday, April 25, 2018

Kubernetes - Core Components


ETCD
etcd is a distributed key-value store written in golang that provides a way to store data across a cluster of machines. The name “etcd’ originated from 2 parts, the unix “/etc” location storing configuration data for a single system and “d”istributed systems.
Etc is for storing configuration data for a single machine where as etcd is for storing configuration data that belong to the distributed systems.
Kubernetes stores configuration data into etcd for service discovery and cluster management; etcd's consistency is crucial for correctly scheduling and operating services. The Kubernetes API server persists cluster state into etcd. It uses etcd's watch API to monitor the cluster and roll out critical configuration changes.
kube-apiserver
Kube-apiserver is the very core component of the kubernetes. This is the front end for kubernetes exposing the kube api.
                                  
When you try to create a pod or deployment using the kubectl command , the kubectl command makes a call to the kube-apiserver with details. kube-apiserver then check who you are and also make sure your access level in the current namespace.
kube-apiserver also make sure to check the validity of the manifest file ( kubectl apply -f pod.yml) and if everything is fine , this will then write that to the etcd server.
kube-apiserver is the only one who can talk to the etcd server. Other Kubernetes components watch certain API endpoints that are relevant to them, based on endpoint they act accordingly. No other component can talk to the etcd , they have to talk using HTTP connections to the kube-apiserver.  

kube-scheduler

This component is responsible for scheduling pods on nodes. When we try to create a Pod, the scheduler assigns a node to the pod using information available. The information includes available resources, restrictions like quality of services , affinity rules, data locality , hardware & software and policy constraints.
The same can be done by a kubernetes admin who can enforce node selection to a pod using the NodeSelectors which determine which node a Pod should run
We can write our own Scheduler algorithm if the default one does not work.
kube-controller-manager
The kube-controller-manager is a daemon process container multiple controller. All these controllers are shipped in a single binary in kubernetes.
All that controller does is watch for events. The controller watch the events by watching some API endpoints from kube-apiserver. A controller watches the shared state of the cluster through kube-apiserver and makes changes attempting to move the cluster current state to the desired state.
a few examples of the controllers are deployment controller, node controller, job controller and namespace controller etc.
A Node controller watchs for all node status if they are up or down. a Daemon set controller watchs for the DaemonSet configuration and will create pod on every machine with that pod configuration.

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